Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Should Parents Send Their Kids to Art Classes? You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.
Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)Bosses Say “Yes” to Home Work
Rising costs of office space, time lost to stressful commuting, and a slow recognition that workers have lives beyond the office—all are strong arguments for letting staff work from home.
For the small business, there are additional benefits too—staff are more productive, and happier, enabling firms to keep their headcounts (员工数) and their recruitment costs to a minimum. It can also provide competitive advantage, especially when small businesses want to attract new staff but don’t have the budget to offer huge salaries.
While company managers have known about the benefits for a long time, many have done little about it, sceptical of whether they could trust their employees to work to full capacity without supervision, or concerned about the additional expenses teleworking policies might incur as staff start charging their home phone bills to the business.
Yet this is now changing. When communications provider Inter-Tel researched the use of remote working solutions among small-and-medium-sized UK businesses in April this year, it found that 28% more companies claimed to have introduced flexible working practices than a year ago.
The UK network of Business Links confirms that it too has seen a growing interest in remote working solutions from small businesses seeking its advice, and claims that as many as 60-70% of the businesses that come through its doors now offer some form of remote working support to their workforces.
Technology advances, including the widespread availability of broadband, are making the introduction of remote working a piece of cake.
“If systems are set up properly, staff can have access to all the resources they have in the office wherever they have an internet connection,” says Andy Poulton, e-business advisor at Business Link for Berkshire and Wiltshire. “There are some very exciting developments which have enabled this.”
One is the availability of broadband everywhere, which now covers almost all of the country (BT claims that, by July, 99.8% of its exchanges will be broadband enabled, with alternative plans in place for even the most remote exchanges). “This is the enabler,” Poulton says.
Yet while broadband has come down in price too, those service providers targeting the business market warn against consumer services masquerading (伪装) as business-friendly broadband.
“Broadband is available for as little as ￡15 a month, but many businesses fail to appreciate the hidden costs of such a service,” says Neil Stephenson, sales and marketing director at Onyx Internet, an internet service provider based in the north-east of England. “Providers offering broadband for rock-bottom prices are notorious for poor service, with regular breakdowns and heavily congested (拥堵的) networks. It is always advisable for businesses to look beyond the price tag and look for a business-only provider that can offer more reliability, with good support.” Such services don’t cost too much—quality services can be found for upwards of ￡30 a month.
The benefits of broadband to the occasional home worker are that they can access email in real time, and take full advantage of services such as internet-based backup or even internet-based phone services.
Internet-based telecoms, or VoIP (Voice over IP) to give it its technical title, is an interesting tool to any business supporting remote working. Not necessarily because of the promise of free or reduced price phone calls (which experts point out is misleading for the average business), but because of the sophisticated voice services that can be exploited by the remote worker—facilities such as voicemail and call forwarding, which provide a continuity of the company image for customers and business partners.
By law, companies must “consider seriously” requests to work flexibly made by a parent with a child under the age of six, or a disabled child under 18. It was the need to accommodate employees with young children that motivated accountancy firm Wright Vigar to begin promoting teleworking recently. The company, which needed to upgrade its IT infrastructure (基础设施) to provide connectivity with a new, second office, decided to introduce support for remote working at the same time.
Marketing director Jack O’Hern explains that the company has a relatively young workforce, many of whom are parents: “One of the triggers was when one of our tax managers returned from maternity leave. She was intending to work part time, but could only manage one day a week in the office due to childcare. By offering her the ability to work from home, we have doubled her capacity—now she works a day a week from home, and a day in the office. This is great for her, and for us as we retain someone highly qualified.”
For Wright Vigar, which has now equipped all of its fee-earners to be able to work at maximum productivity when away from the offices (whether that’s from home, or while on the road), this strategy is not just about saving on commute time or cutting them loose from the office, but enabling them to work more flexible hours that fit around their home life.
O’Hern says: “Although most of our work is client-based and must fit around this, we can’t see any reason why a parent can’t be on hand to deal with something important at home, if they have the ability to complete a project later in the day.”
Supporting this new way of working came with a price, though. Although the firm was updating its systems anyway, the company spent 10-15% more per user to equip them with a laptop rather than a PC, and about the same to upgrade to a server that would enable remote staff to connect to the company networks and access all their usual resources.
Although Wright Vigar hasn’t yet quantified the business benefits, it claims that, in addition to being able to retain key staff with young families, it is able to save fee-earners a substantial amount of “dead” time in their working days.
That staff can do this without needing a fixed telephone line provides even more efficiency savings. “With Wi-Fi (fast, wireless internet connections) popping up all over the place, even on trains, our fee-earners can be productive as they travel, and between meetings, instead of having to kill time at the shops,” he adds.
The company will also be able to avoid the expense of having to relocate staff to temporary offices for several weeks when it begins disruptive office renovations soon.
Financial recruitment specialist Lynne Hargreaves knows exactly how much her firm has saved by adopting a teleworking strategy, which has involved handing her company’s data management over to a remote hosting company, Datanet, so it can be accessible by all the company’s consultants over broadband internet connections.
It has enabled the company to dispense with its business premises altogether, following the realisation that it just didn’t need them any more. “The main motivation behind adopting home working was to increase my own productivity, as a single mum to an 11-year-old,” says Hargreaves. “But I soon realised that, as most of our business is done on the phone, email and at off-site meetings, we didn’t need our offices at all. We’re now saving ￡16,000 a year on rent, plus the cost of utilities, not to mention what would have been spent on commuting.”
1. What is the main topic of this passage?
A) How business managers view hi-tech. B) Relations between employers and employees.
C) How to cut down the costs of small businesses. D) Benefits of the practice of teleworking.
2. From the research conducted by the communications provider Inter-Tel, we learn that __________.
A) more employees work to full capacity at home
B) employees show a growing interest in small businesses
C) more businesses have adopted remote working solutions
D) attitudes toward IT technology have changed
3. What development has made flexible working practices possible according to Andy Poulton?
A) Reduced cost of telecommunications. B) Improved reliability of internet service.
C) Availability of the VoIP service. D) Access to broadband everywhere.
4. What is Neil Stephenson’s advice to firms contracting internet services?
A)They look for reliable business-only providers B)Theycontact providers located nearest to them.
C) They carefully examine the contract. D) They contract the cheapest provider.
5. Internet-based telecoms facilitates remote working by __________.
A) offering sophisticated voice services B) giving access to emailing in real time
C) helping clients discuss business at home D) providing calls completely free of charge
6. The accountancy firm Wright Vigar promoted teleworking initially in order to __________.
A) present a positive image to prospective customers
B) support its employees with children to take care of
C) attract young people with IT expertise to work for it
D) reduce operational expenses of a second office
7. According to marketing director Jack O’Hern, teleworking enabled the company to __________.
A) enhance its market image B) reduce recruitment costs
C) keep highly qualified staff D) minimise its office space
8. Wright Vigar’s practice of allowing for more flexible working hours not only benefits the company but helps improve employees’ __________.
9. With fast, wireless internet connections, employees can still be __________ while traveling.
10. Single mother Lynne Hargreaves decided to work at home mainly to __________.
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension (35 minutes) Section ADirections: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11. A) They would rather travel around than stay at home.
B) They prefer to carry cash when traveling abroad.
C) They usually carry many things around with them.
D) They don’t like to spend much money on traveling.
12. A) The selection process was a little unfair.
B) He had long dreamed of the dean’s position.
C) Rod was eliminated in the selection process.
D) Rod was in charge of the admissions office.
13. A) Applause encourages the singer. B) She regrets paying for the concert.
C) Almost everyone loves pop music. D) The concert is very impressive.
14. A) They have known each other since their schooldays.
B) They were both chairpersons of the Students’ Union.
C) They have been in close touch by email.
D) They are going to hold a reunion party.
15. A) Cook their dinner. B) Rest for a while.
C) Get their car fixed. D) Stop for the night.
16. A) Newly-launched products. B) Consumer preferences.
C) Survey results. D) Survey methods.
17. A) He would rather the woman didn’t buy the blouse.
B) The woman needs blouses in the colors of a rainbow.
C) The information in the catalog is not always reliable.
D) He thinks the blue blouse is better than the red one.
18. A) The course is open to all next semester. B) The notice may not be reliable.
C) The woman has not told the truth. D) He will drop his course in marketing.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) A director of a sales department. B) A manager at a computer store.
C) A sales clerk at a shopping center. D) An accountant of a computer firm.
20. A) Handling customer complaints. B) Recruiting and training new staff.
C) Dispatching ordered goods on time. D) Developing computer programs.
21. A) She likes something more challenging. B) She likes to be nearer to her parents.
C) She wants to have a better-paid job. D) She wants to be with her husband.
22. A) Right away. B) In two months. C) Early next month. D) In a couple of days.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23. A) It will face challenges unprecedented in its history.
B) It is a resolute advocate of the anti-global movement.
C) It is bound to regain its full glory of a hundred years ago.
D) It will be a major economic power by the mid-21st century.
24. A) The lack of overall urban planning. B) The huge gap between the haves and have-nots.
C) The inadequate supply of water and electricity. D) The shortage of hi-tech personnel.
25. A) They attach great importance to education. B) They are able to grasp growth opportunities.
C) They are good at learning from other nation. D) They have made use of advanced technologies.
Section B Passage One26. A) She taught chemistry and microbiology courses in a college.
B) She gave lectures on how to become a public speaker.
C) She helped families move away from industrial polluters.
D) She engaged in field research on environmental pollution.
27. A) The job restricted her from revealing her findings.
B) The job posed a potential threat to her health.
C) She found the working conditions frustrating.
D) She was offered a better job in a minority community.
28. A) Some giant industrial polluters have gone out of business.
B) More environmental organizations have appeared.
C) Many toxic sites in America have been cleaned up.
D) More branches of her company have been set up.
29. A) Her widespread influence among members of Congress.
B) Her ability to communicate through public speaking.
C) Her rigorous training in delivering eloquent speeches.
D) Her lifelong commitment to domestic and global issues.
Passage TwoQuestions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
30. A) The fierce competition in the market. B) The growing necessity of staff training.
C) The accelerated pace of globalisation. D) The urgent need of a diverse workforce.
31. A) Gain a deep understanding of their own culture.
B) Take courses of foreign languages and cultures.
C) Share the experiences of people from other cultures.
D) Participate in international exchange programmes.
32. A) Reflective thinking is becoming critical. B) Labor market is getting globalised.
C) Knowing a foreign language is essential. D) Globalisation will eliminate many jobs.
Passage Three33. A) Red-haired women were regarded as more reliable.
B) Brown-haired women were rated as more capable.
C) Golden-haired women were considered attractive.
D) Black-haired women were judged to be intelligent.
34. A) They are smart and eloquent. B) They are ambitious and arrogant.
C) They are shrewd and dishonest. D) They are wealthy and industrious.
35. A) They force people to follow the cultural mainstream.
B) They exaggerate the roles of certain groups of people.
C) They emphasize diversity at the expense of uniformity.
D) They hinder our perception of individual differences.
Section CThe ancient Greeks developed basic memory systems called mnemonics. The name is __36__ from their Goddess of memory “Mnemosyne”. In the ancient world, a trained memory was an __37__ asset, particularly in public life. There were no __38__ devices for taking notes, and early Greek orators(演说家) delivered long speeches with great __39__ because they learned the speeches using mnemonic systems.
The Greeks discovered that human memory is __40__ an associative process—that it works by linking things together. For example, think of an apple. The__41__your brain registers the word “apple”, it __42__ the shape, color, taste, smell and __43__ of that fruit. All these things are associated in your memory with the word “apple”.
____________________44______________________. An example could be when you think about a lecture you have had. This could trigger a memory about what you’re talking about through that lecture, which can then trigger another memory.
_____________________45________________. An example given on a website I was looking at follows: Do you remember the shape of Austria, Canada, Belgium, or Germany? Probably not. What about Italy, though? ____________4__________________6__. You made an association with something already known, the shape of a boot, and Italy’s shape could not be forgotten once you had made the association.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)(25 minutes) Section ADirections: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
Many countries have made it illegal to chat into a hand-held mobile phone while driving. But the latest research further confirms that the danger lies less in what a motorist’s hands do when he takes a call than in what the conversation does to his brain. Even using a “hands-free” device can divert a driver’s attention to an alarming extent.
Melina Kunar of the University of Warwick, and Todd Horowitz of the Harvard Medical School ran a series of experiments in which two groups of volunteers had to pay attention and respond to a series of moving tasks on a computer screen that were reckoned equivalent in difficulty to driving. One group was left undistracted while the other had to engage in a conversation using a speakerphone. As Kunar and Horowitz report, those who were making the equivalent of a hands-free call had an average reaction time 212 milliseconds slower than those who were not. That, they calculate, would add 5.7 metres to the braking distance of a car travelling at 100kph. They also found that the group using the hands-free kit made 83% more errors in their tasks than those who were not talking.
To try to understand more about why this was, they tried two further tests. In one, members of a group were asked simply to repeat words spoken by the caller. In the other, they had to think of a word that began with the last letter of the word they had just heard. Those only repeating words performed the same as those with no distraction, but those with the more complicated task showed even worse reaction times—an average of 480 milliseconds extra delay. This shows that when people have to consider the information they hear carefully, it can impair their driving ability significantly.
Punishing people for using hand-held gadgets while driving is difficult enough, even though they can be seen from outside the car. Persuading people to switch their phones off altogether when they get behind the wheel might be the only answer. Who knows, they might even come to enjoy not having to take calls.
47. Carrying on a mobile phone conversation while one is driving is considered dangerous because it seriously distracts _______________________.
48. In the experiments, the two groups of volunteers were asked to handle a series of moving tasks which were considered _______________________.
49. Results of the experiments show that those who were making the equivalent of a hands-free call took _______________________ to react than those who were not.
50. Further experiments reveal that participants tend to respond with extra delay if they are required to do _______________________.
51. The author believes persuasion, rather than _______________________, might be the only way to stop people from using mobile phones while driving.
Section BDirections: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage OneThere is nothing like the suggestion of a cancer risk to scare a parent, especially one of the over-educated, eco-conscious type. So you can imagine the reaction when a recent USA Today investigation of air quality around the nation’s schools singled out those in the smugly（自鸣得意的）green village of Berkeley, Calif., as being among the worst in the country. The city’s public high school, as well as a number of daycare centers, preschools, elementary and middle schools, fell in the lowest 10%. Industrial pollution in our town had supposedly turned students into living science experiments breathing in a laboratory’s worth of heavy metals like manganese, chromium and nickel each day. This in a city that requires school cafeterias to serve organic meals. Great, I thought, organic lunch, toxic campus.
Since December, when the report came out, the mayor, neighborhood activists（活跃分子）and various parent-teacher associations have engaged in a fierce battle over its validity: over the guilt of the steel-casting factory on the western edge of town, over union jobs versus children’s health and over what, if anything, ought to be done. With all sides presenting their own experts armed with conflicting scientific studies, whom should parents believe? Is there truly a threat here, we asked one another as we dropped off our kids, and if so, how great is it? And how does it compare with the other, seemingly perpetual health scares we confront, like panic over lead in synthetic athletic fields? Rather than just another weird episode in the town that brought you protesting environmentalists, this latest drama is a trial for how today’s parents perceive risk, how we try to keep our kids safe—whether it’s possible to keep them safe—in what feels like an increasingly threatening world. It raises the question of what, in our time, “safe” could even mean.
“There’s no way around the uncertainty,” says Kimberly Thompson, president of Kid Risk, a nonprofit group that studies children’s health. “That means your choices can matter, but it also means you aren’t going to know if they do.” A 2004 report in the journal Pediatrics explained that nervous parents have more to fear from fire, car accidents and drowning than from toxic chemical exposure. To which I say: Well, obviously. But such concrete hazards are beside the point. It’s the dangers parents can’t—and may never—quantify that occur all of sudden. That’s why I’ve rid my cupboard of microwave food packed in bags coated with a potential cancer-causing substance, but although I’ve lived blocks from a major fault line(地质断层) for more than 12 years, I still haven’t bolted our bookcases to the living room wall.
52. What does a recent investigation by USA Today reveal?
A) Heavy metals in lab tests threaten children’s health in Berkeley.
B) Berkeley residents are quite contented with their surroundings.
C) The air quality around Berkeley’s school campuses is poor.
D) Parents in Berkeley are over-sensitive to cancer risks their kids face.
53. What response did USA Today’s report draw?
A) A heated debate .B) Popular support.
C) Widespread panic. D) Strong criticism.
54. How did parents feel in the face of the experts’ studies?
A) They felt very much relieved. B) They were frightened by the evidence.
C) They didn’t know who to believe. D) They weren’t convinced of the results.
55. What is the view of the 2004 report in the journal Pediatrics?
A) It is important to quantify various concrete hazards.
B) Daily accidents pose a more serious threat to children.
C) Parents should be aware of children’s health hazards.
D) Attention should be paid to toxic chemical exposure.
56. Of the dangers in everyday life, the author thinks that people have most to fear from __________.
A) the uncertain B) the quantifiable
C) an earthquake D) unhealthy food
Passage TwoQuestions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Crippling health care bills, long emergency-room waits and the inability to find a primary care physician just scratch the surface of the problems that patients face daily.
Primary care should be the backbone of any health care system. Countries with appropriate primary care resources score highly when it comes to health outcomes and cost. The U.S. takes the opposite approach by emphasizing the specialist rather than the primary care physician.
A recent study analyzed the providers who treat Medicare beneficiaries（老年医保受惠人）. The startling finding was that the average Medicare patient saw a total of seven doctors—two primary care physicians and five specialists—in a given year. Contrary to popular belief, the more physicians taking care of you don’t guarantee better care. Actually, increasing fragmentation of care results in a corresponding rise in cost and medical errors.
How did we let primary care slip so far? The key is how doctors are paid. Most physicians are paid whenever they perform a medical service. The more a physician does, regardless of quality or outcome, the better he’s reimbursed (返还费用). Moreover, the amount a physician receives leans heavily toward medical or surgical procedures. A specialist who performs a procedure in a 30-minute visit can be paid three times more than a primary care physician using that same 30 minutes to discuss a patient’s disease. Combine this fact with annual government threats to indiscriminately cut reimbursements, physicians are faced with no choice but to increase quantity to boost income.
Primary care physicians who refuse to compromise quality are either driven out of business or to cash-only practices, further contributing to the decline of primary care.
Medical students are not blind to this scenario. They see how heavily the reimbursement deck is stacked against primary care. The recent numbers show that since 1997, newly graduated U.S. medical students who choose primary care as a career have declined by 50%. This trend results in emergency rooms being overwhelmed with patients without regular doctors.
How do we fix this problem?
It starts with reforming the physician reimbursement system. Remove the pressure for primary care physicians to squeeze in more patients per hour, and reward them for optimally (最佳地) managing their diseases and practicing evidence-based medicine. Make primary care more attractive to medical students by forgiving student loans for those who choose primary care as a career and reconciling the marked difference between specialist and primary care physician salaries.
We’re at a point where primary care is needed more than ever. Within a few years, the first wave of the 76 million Baby Boomers will become eligible for Medicare. Patients older than 85, who need chronic care most, will rise by 50% this decade.
Who will be there to treat them?
57. The author’s chief concern about the current U.S. health care system is __________.
A) the inadequate training of physicians
B) the declining number of doctors
C) the shrinking primary care resources
D) the ever-rising health care costs
58. We learn from the passage that people tend to believe that __________.
A) the more costly the medicine, the more effective the cure
B) seeing more doctors may result in more diagnostic errors
C) visiting doctors on a regular basis ensures good health
D) the more doctors taking care of a patient, the better
59. Faced with the government threats to cut reimbursements indiscriminately, primary care physicians have to __________ .
A) increase their income by working overtime
B) improve their expertise and service
C) make various deals with specialists
D) see more patients at the expense of quality
60. Why do many new medical graduates refuse to choose primary care as their career?
A) They find the need for primary care declining.
B) The current system works against primary care.
C) Primary care physicians command less respect.
D) They think working in emergency rooms tedious.
61. What suggestion does the author give in order to provide better health care?
A) Bridge the salary gap between specialists and primary care physicians.
B) Extend primary care to patients with chronic diseases.
C) Recruit more medical students by offering them loans.
D) Reduce the tuition of students who choose primary care as their major.
Part V Cloze (5 minutes)
McDonald’s, Greggs, KFC and Subway are today named as the most littered brands in England as Keep Britain Tidy called on fast-food companies to do more to tackle customers who drop their wrappers and drinks cartons (盒子) in the streets.
Phil Barton, chief executive of Keep Britain Tidy, __62__ its new Dirty Pig campaign, said it was the first time it had investigated which __63__ made up “littered England” and the same names appeared again and again.
“We __64__ litterers for dropping this fast food litter ___65__ the first place but also believe the results have pertinent (相关的) messages for the fast food __66__. Mc-Donald’s, Greggs, KFC and Subway need to do more to __67__ littering by their customers.”
He recognised efforts made by McDonald’s, __68__ placing litter bins and increasing litter patrols, but its litter remained “all too prevalent”. All fast food chains should reduce __69__ packaging, he added. Companies could also reduce prices __70__ those who stayed to eat food on their premises, offer money-off vouchers (代金券) or other __71__ for those who returned packaging and put more bins at __72__ points in local streets, not just outside their premises. A __73__ for McDonald’s said: “We do our best. Obviously we ask all our customers to dispose of litter responsibly.” Trials of more extensive, all-day litter patrols were __74__ in Manchester and Birmingham.
KFC said it took its __75__ on litter management “very seriously”, and would introduce a programme to reduce packaging __76__ many products. Subway said
that it worked hard to __77__ the impact of litter on communities，__78__ it was “still down to the __79__ customer to dispose of their litter responsibly”. Greggs said it recognised the “continuing challenge for us all”, __80__ having already taken measures to help __81__ the issue.
62. A) elevating B) convening
C) launching D) projecting
63. A) signals B) signs
C) commercials D) brands
64. A) condemn B) refute
C) uncover D) disregard
65. A) around B) toward
C) in D) off
66. A) industry B) career
C) profession D) vocation
67. A) exclude B) discourage
C) suppress D) retreat
68. A) incorporating B) including
C) comprising D) containing
69. A) unreliable B) unrelated
C) unimportant D) unnecessary
70. A) for B) about
C) with D) to
71. A) accessories B) merits
C) incentives D) dividends
72. A) curious B) mysterious
C) strange D) strategic
73. A) narrator B) spokesman
C) mediator D) broker
74. A) in season B) at risk
C) off hand D) under way
75. A) responsibility B) liability
C) commission D) administration
76. A) around B) by
C) on D) above
77. A) divert B) minimize
C) degrade D) suspend
78. A) if B) whether
C) so D) but
79. A) individual B) concrete
C) unique D) respective
80. A) except B) without
C) despite D) via
81. A) deal B) tackle
PartⅥ Translation (5 minutes)Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
82. How long does a jacket like this last me_____________________? (这要看你多长时间穿一次).
83. The theory he advanced has proved _______________________(对许多传统概念的一种挑战).
84. The manager ________________________(本可以亲自参加会议), but he was called away for some urgent business abroad.
85. Both research and practical experience have shown that a ___________________________(均衡的饮食对健康是必不可少的).
86. Much ______________________________(我感到遗憾), I was unable to finish the work on time. (责任编辑：admin)